The US space agency’s (NASA) Mars mission has been successfully completed. The mission’s “Perseverance Mars Rover” landed on Mars on Friday night. As soon as the message arrived after the rover landed, the people involved in the project applauded and expressed happiness. The rover’s landing has been a success for NASA’s ten years of hard work. The rover landed on Mars at 2:40 am Nepali time on Friday.
The purpose of NASA’s Mars mission is to explore the possibility of life on Mars. Perseverance Mars Rover has landed on Jezero Crater, a difficult location on Mars. According to scientists, a river used to flow in this place of Mars billions of years ago. Due to the changed atmosphere of Mars, the river dried up and turned into a delta. Scientists believe that fossils of life can be found around this delta.
The Perseverance Rover, equipped with state-of-the-art scientific equipment, will dig into this part of Mars to investigate micro-life which is the main aim of this mars mission. The 6-wheeled Perseverance Rover is a nuclear-powered rover. The main purpose of the mars mission is to study whether there is a possibility of future human settlement on Mars.
NASA’s Mars mission was very challenging. First, NASA had made the Jejero Crater, the remote location in mars for the mission’s rover landing, a landing site, and second, this time the rover weighed more than a ton.
NASA knew that the last seven minutes of landing would be crucial. NASA had rehearsed several times for these seven minutes. No matter how much rehearsal was done, no matter how advanced the technology was, if there was any interruption during the last seven minutes of landing, there was no way NASA could do anything. The rover would crash on Mars and be destroyed before it gets a command from NASA. Because it takes 11 minutes for the command sent from the earth to reach the hover and the rover could crash on mars before getting the command.
But fortunately, the rover did not face any difficulty while landing. It has to be called the miracle of artificial intelligence. This rover will be in operation for the next ten years. It will continue to send a variety of information from Mars to the Earth’s control room. It will take about 11 minutes for the message (photo) to reach the earth sent by the rover.
The distance between NASA’s Earth-based control room and the rover changes every day, meaning the time it takes for sending the message by rover perseverance to reach the earth will also change. As the distance between the two increases, the distance can increase to 400 million km. As the distance increases, the time sent by the rover to reach the control room will increase. Radio messages travel at speeds equal to 299792.457 km per second. When the distance reaches 400 million, it will take 22 minutes for the message sent by the rover to reach the earth.
Successful Landing: Mars mission
During the landing of the rover, NASA’s spacecraft entered the orbit of Mars. The rover then detached from the lander, the capsule entering Mars, and moved toward Mars. This capsule also had several engines. It entered the upper atmosphere of Mars at a speed of about 20,000 km per hour. The temperature at the bottom of the capsule had risen to 1,300 degrees Celsius due to friction as it entered the upper atmosphere of Mars. But the capsule was designed in such a way that the rover inside it was not harmed.
Then the parachute in the capsule was opened. With the opening of the parachute, the other capsule of the rover was detached from the capsule and proceeded to Mars by parachute. The radar attached to the rover was providing it with all the information. A very high technology Terrain Relative Navigation was connected to the rover for landing which made this mars mission effective.
The technology provided the rover with a map and photo of the landing site, on the basis of which the rover moved safely forward during the conquest of Mars. NASA used “Sky crane” technology in the launch of the mission. NASA had earlier landed one of its ‘Space Probe’ OSIRIS-REx on an asteroid ‘101955 Bennu‘ in 2018 using this technology.
What will now the Perseverance Rover do during the entire Mars mission?
Now Rover Perseverance will roam around Mars and will help in performing different scientific experiments. In addition to collecting soil, rock, and sand samples, it will play an important role in finding fossils of ‘micro bacterial’ life in the sand. The rover will also work to create oxygen on Mars. This rover is expected to prove to be the best structure and use of artificial intelligence. Even if NASA doesn’t send it any more commands, it will continue to work for the next ten years. NASA scientists created this rover by writing a ten-year command in its memory. It will automatically operate all written commands for up to ten years.
The rover also flies a drone helicopter from the surface of Mars. The rover is equipped with the technology to fly the drone up to five times. The drone will fly over to take pictures of Mars from the sky as well as gather much other important information. Both the rover and the drone are equipped with cameras, microphones and many scientific instruments which will make this NASA’s mars mission more effective.