Computer and Generation of computer – Unit 1 – The best class 11 computer notes

Computer and Generation of computer – Unit 1 – The best class 11 computer notes

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The computer is an electronic device that takes raw data from the user process it and gives meaningful result. A programmable electronic device designed to accept data, perform prescribed mathematical and logical operations at high speed, and display the results of these operations.

Application area of computer

  • Banking
  • Industries
  • Engineering
  • Health and medicine
  • Education
  • Communication
  • Insurance
  • Weather forecasting
  • Desktop publishing
  • E-ticketing


Characteristic of computer

  • Electronic
  • Storage
  • Accuracy
  • Speed
  • Versatility
  • Diligence
  • Automation
  • Non-intelligent


Generation of computer

Computer generations are based on when major technological changes in computers occurred, like the use of vacuum tubes, transistors, and the microprocessor. The stepwise development in the technology for the growth of computer hardware and software is known as the generation of computers. But nowadays, it has been extended to include both hardware and software that together perform a specific task.

There are five generations of the computer system.

  • First-generation computer (1945-1956)
  • Second generation of computer (1956-1964)
  • Third generation of computer (1964-1970)
  • Fourth generation of computer (1970-1990)
  • Fifth-generation of computer (1990-present days)


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First-generation of computer

The computer which uses vacuum tubes or valves as main technology is called the first generation of computers. Example: -IBM 700 series, ENIAC, EDVAC, etc.

Characteristic of the First generation of computer

  • Main technology: – Vacuum tube or valves.
  • Speed and processing capacity: -very slow
  • Operation speed: -In terms of millisecond
  • Programming language: -Machine level language
  • Accuracy and reliability: -Not fully accurate and reliable
  • Size: -Huge size and required a lot of space.
  • Cost: -Very costly
  • Heat generation: – Generate a lot of heat.
  • Power consumption: -consume a lot of electricity
  • Primary Memory: -Magnetic core memory
  • Secondary Memory: – Magnetic tape.
  • Not-portable
  • AC required.


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The second generation of computer

The computer which uses transistor main technology is called the second generation of computer. IBM 1401, IBM 1620, IBM 1794, etc. are examples of the second generation of computers.

Characteristic of the second generation of computer

  • Main technology: – Transistors.
  • Speed and processing capacity: -slow
  • Operation speed: -In terms of microsecond
  • Programming language: -Support Machine and assembly language
  • Accuracy and reliability: -Not fully accurate and reliable
  • Size: -Huge size and required a lot of space but smaller than first-generation
  • Cost: -costly
  • Heat generation: – Generate a lot of heat but less than the first generation of computers.
  • Power consumption: -consume a lot of electricity but less than the first generation of computer
  • Primary Memory: -Magnetic core memory
  • Secondary Memory: – Magnetic tape.
  • Not-portable
  • AC required.


The third generation of computer  

The generation of computer which used IC (Integrated Circuit) as main technology is called the third generation of computer. IBM 360 series, Honeywell series, etc. are examples of the third generation of computers.

Characteristic of the third generation of computer

  • Main technology: – IC (Integrated circuit)
  • Speed and processing capacity: -Faster than the previous generation
  • Operation speed: -In terms of a nanosecond.
  • Programming language: -High-level language
  • Accuracy and reliability: -More accurate and reliable
  • Size: -Smaller in size.
  • Cost: – Cheaper than the previous generation.
  • Heat generation: – Generate less heat than the previous generation.
  • Power consumption: -consume less electricity.
  • Primary Memory: -Semi-conductor memory (RAM, ROM)
  • Secondary Memory: – Magnetic disk.
  • The keyboard and monitor are used for data input and output.
  • Multiprogramming and DBMS were introduced.
  • Portable.


The fourth generation of computers.

The computer which used Microprocessor or VLSI (very-large-scale integration) as main technology is called the fourth generation of computer. IBM PC, Apple/Macintosh, etc. are the example of the fourth generation of computers.

Characteristic of the fourth generation of computer

  • Main technology: – Microprocessor or VLSI.
  • Speed and processing capacity: -very fast
  • Operation speed: -In terms of picosecond
  • Programming language: -High-level language and 4GL
  • Accuracy and reliability: -fully accurate and reliable
  • Size: -smallest.
  • Cost: -Cheapest.
  • Heat generation and power consumption: -very low.
  • Primary Memory: -semi-conductor memory (RAM, ROM)
  • Secondary Memory: – Magnetic disk (Hard disk, DVD, etc.)
  • portable
  • Advance user-friendly, versatile, multi-programming, and web-based software were introduced.
  • Internet, email, and advanced operating system (windows-7, LINUX, etc.) were developed.
  • Available for general as well as special purposes.


Fifth-generation of computers.

The generation of computer which uses bio-chips and AI (Artificial Intelligence) as main technology is called the fifth generation of computer. The computer of this generation is still in the development stage but scientists are trying since 1990 A.D.

Characteristic /Features of the fifth generation of computer

  • Main technology: -Bio-chips or AI
  • The computer will have artificial intelligence. So, computers will be knowledge-based and intelligent.
  • It will use natural language.
  • This computer will use superconductor memory or technology, so speed will be very high.
  • The input and output of this generation will be in the form of speech and graphic images.
  • More user-friendly interface with the multi-media feature.
  • The language of the operating system will be PROLOG, LISP, etc.
  • Aims to solve highly complex problems, which require reasoning, intelligence, and expertise.


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