The word tourism is derived from the French word ‘Tourisme’, which means tour and travel. Tourism is the temporary movement of people to destinations outside of the places where they normally live and work and their activities during their stay at these destinations. It includes the movement of any purpose, such as business, leisure, etc.
In 1968, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) and International Union of Official Tourism Organization (IUOTO) had defined tourism and tourist as: “The tourists are temporary visitors staying at least 24 hours in the country or destination visited and tourism is the living activities at the place or destination”.
TYPES OF TOURISM
As we know tourism is one of the chief economic sources for different countries. It is very important to know the type of tourism to venture into different sites for promoting market-based tourist. There are different types of tourism and they are as follows:
1. Cultural Tourism:
This segment of tourism is consisting of programs aimed at participants interested in learning the custom of certain people or religions. In the context of Nepal, Cultural tourism is well known for history, architecture, playing, ox-driven carts, dances, folk, etc.
2. Adventure tourism:
This type of tourism is organized in remote areas. Here guests take part physically in trekking, rafting, mountaineering, bungee jumping. This type of tourism is more popular among youngsters.
3. Environment Tourism (Eco-tourism):
Ecotourism is becoming very popular in the present time. It is to see and deserve a man-land relationship, biological diversity, landscape, wild-life, etc. In this tourism, adventurous tourists, nature loves the student of geographic, ecology, zoology visit various destination. It is very popular in Nepal because the majority of people come to Nepal to see the conservation of nature in this type of tourism.
4. Sports Tourism:
This segment of tourism consists of programs and activities for the specific purpose of promoting the practice of sports by amateurs and professionals.
Eg, Mountaineering, golf, diving, fishing, windsurfing, etc.
5. Historical tourism:
This segment of tourism deals with the magnificence of the past. In this type of tourism people generally visit museums and cathedrals. The tourist involved in this type and special guidance for detailed information ruins and monuments.
6. Recreational tourism:
These activities of this tourism are mostly related to body and mind. It is also concerned with relaxation, rest, and excitement. It is often snow, sand, sun, sea, etc promoted by beautiful colour pictures. This is centralized in big cities, such as clubs, casinos, and many other, recreational areas.
7. Trade and conference (business) tourism:
People visiting from one place to another for the purpose of trade promotion foreign investment and uploading new ventures. Multinational companies hold their conference and meeting venue in the central point country to visit with case and to save long-distance overhead costs.
8. Research and education tourism:
The segment of tourism costing at programs and activities for leaving, training, or increasing knowledge on-site involving students and teacher with local professional. Eg. Botany, cookery, zoology, photography, etc.
9. Well-being (health) tourism:
This segment of tourism consisting of programs and activities develops to improve or balance the physical or spiritual condition of an individual or group of persons.
Eg. Yoga, clinic, Hospital, etc.
10. Ethnic tourism:
In this type of tourism, the tourists are motivated and guided to see the way of living style of the particular group. Ethnic tourism has been developed to identify primitive society and their culture in most parts of the world. In this Tourism, the tourist visits the destination to see the tradition, culture, custom, food habits, dressing, ornaments, housing design, family marriage, etc of the community.
Nature of tourism
The nature of tourism is closely connected with traveling.it has been a human phenomenon since the beginning of human civilization from the day tourism started it is in continuous changing and making process in various sectors and people.
✓ Tourism is an intangible product.
✓ Tourism comprises various industrial businesses.
✓ Tourism is related to sumptuousness.
✓ Tourism products are highly perishable.
✓ Tourism products are stationary.
✓ Tourism is a contributor to the economy.
COMPONENTS OF TOURISM
It is categorized under four components and they are as follows:
Attraction is a feeling of love. It is an activity to attract people from various parts of the world and motivate them to travel. The attraction may be a site or events out of 4 basic components of tourism. Attraction is very important. The attraction like cultural sites, historical buildings, and monuments, scenic beauty, flora, fauna. Beach, mountains, national parks, etc. generate the flow of tourists to a particular location. There are two types of attraction and they are:
a. Natural Attraction:
Attraction created by nature in its original form or real gifts of nature is called natural attraction.
For example flora, fauna, lake, rivers, beach, mountains, etc. These are the national assets of a country or region. This is the most important attraction of the tourism industry.
b. Man-made attraction:
Manmade attractions are the result of the effort of human civilization to preserve their culture, historical places, many other things for the future generation as a part of tourism prospect. For example Historical sites and buildings, cultural attractions, zoo and museum, temple, hotel, restaurant, education center, religious places, etc.
This is another important component of tourism. A tourist can reach the area where the attraction is located by means of transportation, Tourists attraction could be of little or more importance depending on the means of transport available to reach a place.
✓ The different modes of transport categorized into the following:
✓ Road transport (public and private vehicles)
✓ Rail transport (public railways)
✓ Sea transport (pubic and private)
✓ Air transport (public and private)
✓ Cable/ropeway transport (public and private)
Accommodation is another important component of tourism which means the place to stay. It plays a vital role in the tourist movement. It trends to provide lodging and fooding facilities to the guest in their destination.
The most important two elements of tourism are the journey to the destination and stay at the destination. The types of accommodation are hotels, resorts, inns, motels, etc.
Amenity/Amenities are the facilities added to the attraction, accommodation, and transportation. Amenities are one of the basic elements of tourist attraction. For example, simply traveling by bus or train does not count as an amenity. The service includes facilities to held the tourists to cater to their needs and expectation. They are immigration, visa, foreign exchange, travel, trekking, hiking, rafting, club, hospitals, mailing service. Insurance, credit card, money transfer, telecommunication, shops.